Date: 15 September 2017
Author: Michael Schloh von Bennewitz
Contact: [email protected]
IRC-contacts: msvb-lab, msvb-mob
Title: Dedicated Monero Hardware Wallet
Related to: RFC-HWALLET-2, RFC-HWALLET-3, RFC-HWALLET-4
Get Monero Hardware Wallets
It's time for the Monero community to come together and realize the goal of a hardware wallet!
The status of this proposal is:
PENDING FUNDING PLEDGES
In reverse cron order.
20170915 Publish version 1.0
Added sketchy RF integration
Explained schedule of procurement
Clarified work to reverse engineer
Mentioned possible Shmoocon promotion
Removed nonhardware based requirements
Detailed role of microscopy in workflow
Included more secure element details
Zero sum corrected budget for lab
Added plan column for FFS release
20170913 Publish version 0.9
Added copyright statement
Added airgap feature option
Clarified choice of License
Slight changes to the budget
Slight changes to requirements
Added related project content
New Defunding Option section
New Proposal Ownership section
New Legal Summary section
New requested Intention section
Documented outreach to Gemalto
Emphasized hardware focus and license
20170912 Publish version 0.8
Nonfunctional Requirements additions
Requirements 'note' reminder
Time floor function removed
Secure Element development
New Scope Creep section
Project plan adjustment
Budget detailed design
XMR rate changed to 67
20170830 Publish version 0.7
Functional Requirements additions
New Workflow section
20170818 Publish revision 0.6
20170816 Proposal creation
20170801 DefCon Genesis
Note: PLEASE REMEMBER THAT THE DELIVERABLE (SEE SECTIONS 'DELIVERABLES' AND 'SCOPE CREEP') IS A PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARD DESIGN. Other efforts exist to produce related deliverables like bootloader, firmware, enclosures, branding, modding, and derivatives.
- Quality: The project is bodacious (bold and audacious)
- Usability: Simple and intuitive, one hour learning time
- Availability: Build your own and commercial models supported
- Accessibility: One (of two total) button operation
- Verification: Standard on board private display
- Legal clarity: Avoidance of NDA and closed source terms
- Legal freedom: Patent treaty via Open Invention Network
- Open natured: All assembled parts ship with datasheets
- Regulatory compliance: Attention to RoHS certification
- Invulnerability: Prohibitive intrusion effort or time
- Data integrity: Selective verification by SE cryptoanalysis
- Reliability: MTBF to be determined and documented
- Operating constraints: High firmware compatibility
- Size constraints: To be determined after enclosure research
- Resilience: Broad degree (voltage and temperature) of operation
- Interoperability: Provision to interface with software wallets
- Capacity: Balance between feature storage size and transistor constraint
- Supportability: Supported through existing (forum, IRC, Reddit) channels
- Privacy: Timer equipped for dimming, and narrow viewing angle
- Documentation: Camera ready collection of developer documents
- HW testability: Unpopulated debug (JTAG or similar) headers
- FW testability: Bootloader and sample firmware templates
- Extensibility: Open design with a common EDA CAD application
- Marketability: Support for product design and management efforts
- Derivability: Variation by unpopulating an overextended design
- Portability: Portions of design forked from other projects
- Power supply
- 5V USB connection
- 3V3 Battery housing
- Security design criteria
- Crypto: Private key in secure element¹
- Potting: Epoxy compound (optional²)
- Production: Non-RST debug removal
- Airgap: Disconnected media option³
- CPA and glitch defense
- Dual MCU comparison circuit⁴
- ...or external secure element⁴
- Invasive border search protection
- Passphrase plausible deniability
- 48V supercap discharge circuit
- ...or puncture destruction kit⁵
- Intrusion detection criteria⁶
- Ambient light interruption
- Mechanical switch interruption
- Physical stability
- High rated semiconductors
- Moisture ingress nanocoating
- Developer friendliness
- Development: JTAG breakout
- Pogo pin harness option
- User friendliness
- Replaceable battery
- Replaceable optional media⁴
- Screen sized to allow QR
- Possible RF integration³
...unless we want to avoid BlueBorne
¹ Depending on availability of supporting IC
² How to apply potting is documentation only
³ Research prone feature, may yield suboptimal
⁴ Depending on results of cost and size analysis
⁵ Destruction by puncture is documentation only
⁶ Independent circuit for optional model extension
A secure element (SE) serves to verify firmware at boot via standard DSA or ECDSA, and hopefully a vendor of hardware key storage is found that supports Monero's ED25519 elliptic curve. A private key in a real (with lock features) secure element means that even rogue firmware cannot access the key.
It seems this would be the first design to ever implement such a high degree of wallet security, but unfortunately ECDSA support depends on the hardware vendor. This is a formidable challenge.
Degree of Success
Several weeks of research will determine which of the desired secure element supported implementations are realistic. A worst case scenario is that ED25519 is completely unsupported and must be processed by firmware in SRAM, the same thing that Ledger and Trezor do. Preliminary research suggests the possibility that ARM CryptoCell circuits support hardware ED25519 calculations with a unknown (possibly no locking supported) key deployment method.
Discussion (even before this proposal concludes) is ongoing with Microchip, Atmel, and Gemalto. We want them to produce integrated circuits according to the very easy to meet requirements.
- Review of requirements from the existing designs of Ledger, Trezor, and KeepKey
- Blend of features from peripheral devices like Opendime, Mooltipass, and Cryptosteel
The Monero hardware wallet is a printed circuit board design resembling the Ledger or Trezor wallet PCBs. It may be slightly larger in size and composed of fewer (broader reach) or more (optimal electronic density) substrate layers.
Please see related RFC-HWALLET-X proposals for product design, firmware implementation, and other non hardware design work.
The project is particularly vulnerable to scope creep. Votes or attempts at consensus on how to react to changing requirements are not planned. Rather, a compromise (maintaining pace of progress) is reached by attending nearly all Monero development meetings and reporting accordingly.
If contributors are interested in applied agile methods to track scope, then this can be arranged once agreement is reached in meetings.
Michael is a computer scientist undergraduate with 15 years of industry (software, telecom, embedded systems) experience. He trains groups at Black Hat  and produces (not for sale) hardware in his circuits lab. He worked with the inventor of mod_ssl at Cable & Wireless, collaborates with WolfSSL on Atmel/Microchip IC to low powered ESP8266 platform porting, as well as MbedTLS on Atmel secure element provisioning.
He is a cryptocurrency novice of Ethereum, Bitcoin, and now Monero. He has earned the trust of his students using custom derivatives of Bus Pirate, FRDM, and NodeMCU shield devices, as well as larger companies (references on request) assigning first generation SBC hardware shield extensions on contract.
If you look carefully, you will find the privacy sensitive software development Michael has done for high profile groups.
Michael is motivated to complete this project in order to have a Monero hardware wallet of his own, improve PCB design skills using a secure element, contribute to Monero enthusiasm, and become more active in the Monero community (by owning coins and IRC communicating frequently.)
If all related FFS proposals are rejected, then Michael will probably be a Monero currency owner but cannot afford to contribute software, firmware, or hardware logic.
Portions of the production machinery budget may be defunded, leading to the following added risk:
- Unexpected scope reverse creep
- Loss of miniaturization requirements
- Loss of component choice requirements
- Reduction or cancellation of samples distribution
- Reduction or cancellation of promotion deliveries
- Fewer test generations leading to reduced QA work
- Introduction of new budget items to fund assembly
- Failure of any process requiring quick or accurate manufacturing
The actions and features at risk would still be worked on a best effort basis. To be clear, this
proposal has no defunded budget items and production machinery will be procured in the most expedient and inexpensive way.
Some RFC-HWALLET-X proposals are complementary and others mutually exclusive. In the best case, this pilot project will serve to launch and support other (conference badge, sponsored swag, product integrations, university research) related projects.
|Qinsi QS-5100 reflow oven
|Analog stereo microscope
|NeoDen4 Pick and Place
Passive and IC components
|Paste, substrate, nozzles
Facilities and services
Travel and promotion
|Included in other items
Trips to manufacturing locations (Shenzhen or Hangzhou) will not be taken unless necessary, for example when a flight is cheaper than postal shipping or acting as a courier yields a customs free import. In those cases, trip cost is absorbed by the budget stated resource price (with nothing new to add.)
|Lost contracts reimbursement⁷
⁷ Estimated by crossing vectors (6 months lapse, proximity obligation, hour loss) and considering used nonworktime procurements.
A 20% buffer is in place to lower risk of production loss or delay. This is partly due to Michael's lack of crypto trading experience and partly due to natural monetary fluctuation.
|Fulfillment of requirements
Note: The base rate is recalculated (95 € + 40 €) ÷ 2 resulting in 1XMR = 67EUR €. The previous base rate was 40EUR € before fluctuation and the current price is 80EUR €.
A number of machines is already available including a Voltera V-One substrate printing machine, JND-983A solder dispenser, industrial air compressor, dedicated circuit production computer, and solder rework station.
The total value of already acquired machinery is estimated at 8000EUR € (120XMR.) These resources will be used but require no budget.
Any tools needed (see 'Production machinery') should be purchased in the first month (see 'Project Plan'), in order to avoid postponement of milestones.
Ten to twenty hours per week six months long, scheduled at the author's discretion. This variability is to accommodate lack of sync in PCB printing, parts ordering, potential firmware integration, and test revisions, logistics which may take weeks to order and ship.
Time will be spent in a:
- In house circuit lab
- Local hacker space
- Remote maker space
Work is transparently carried out according to typical distributed Opensource practices. The degree of in house production is maximized to shrink the attack surface introduced by contract manufacturing as well as increase the turn around time of generational testing.
External and prior logic is researched for possible integration. This may include reverse engineering of contending designs by Opensource documentation or closed source (to the legal extent) microscopic inspection.
A schematic diagram is designed using KiCad or equivalent Opensource software. A layout is derived from the schematic and integration work.
Two layer FR4 (flame retardant) substrate is printed according to the prior layout. Four layer substrate may be used, but a external contract manufacturer like Aisler or OSH Park is required for that.
An Sn63Pb37 alloy is applied to the substrate with an injection based solder printer.
The board is populated (stuffed) with components in a standard pick and place procedure. Manual placing is avoided due to error and delay concerns.
The board is baked according to a timed temperature curve yielding a ready to test PCB. An experimental two sided approach may allow for extra density.
Bridged solder pads, air wires, and other mistakes are corrected.
Electrical and optical tests are manually done to identify manufacturing problems. This may include stereoscopic magnification or controlled destruction.
MCU and external flash programming applies primitive bootloader and firmware interface images.
The PCB is ready for use, and a new generation of correction and improvement follows. Start from the beginning (integration step) to optimise the existing design and fulfill more requirements.
Production samples are mailed to investors, testers, and promoters identified during Monero meetings.
|Initialisation work (platform, communication, and procurement)
|Tool configs, project documentation, Opendime research
|Set of PCBs employing secure elements from ST and Atmel
|Trezor and Ledger hardware (clone) production
|Trezor and Ledger firmware (fork) programming
|Mock or prototype demonstration at 34C3 
|Midterm report on Trezor and Ledger findings
|Custom design and recent feature tailoring
|Midterm remix in favor of Monero features
|New prototype demonstration at FOSDEM 
|Correlation power analysis, glitch attack trials
|PCB generations (schematic and layout improvements)
|Size and complexity (less or more layers) optimizations
|End of term⁸
|Demonstration video of a release grade⁹ manufactured board
⁸ Six month conclusion
⁹ Post prototype
Funds are asymmetrically distributed, due to terms of machinery procurement and facilities use. Some correction (not receiving work time reimbursement the first month) attempts to balance this asymmetry.
Progress is reported in bimonthly Monero developer meetings on the IRC developer channel.
Continuation Plan (Pending New RFC and Revote)
|First viable wallet with hello world firmware
|Invitation documents produced with instructions
|Virtual community event for alpha testers, demo
|Official release at Black Hat and DefCon
The Monero Project owns this (Opensource) proposal, the blueprint-like result of a month's careful deliberation and research. The author contributed it by uploading content to the forum. Readers are free to print and hand it to investors, colleagues, university professors, or whoever else, in order to start a hardware project of their own.
Source files (text and binary) of all work state Copyright (c) 2017-2018, The Monero Project.
CERN Open Hardware License 1.2
Being a hardware project, no software license is used. Instead, a open hardware license is applied whose terms resemble the other Monero projects' (BSD|MIT) licenses. Patents are more relevant to hardware projects so to counter risk of conflict the CERN OHL is used.
Note: While deliberating between TAPR and CERN, online chats led to a preference for CERN due to its:
- Poison pill
- Lack of lame conditions
- Lack of Eric Raymond complaints
- Adoption by other like minded projects
The legal terms mentioned in this text are chosen with the intent of maintaining free and open access to the work. Some call this intellectual property (IP) and others consider deliverables (see section 'Deliverables'.)
These intentions are no different than other Monero projects, and the community is unified in encouraging freedom. Like any other similarly licensed Opensource project, groups and individuals may enjoy the free and open terms as specified in the license.
The project intends to serve as a launchpad for small (one man-hour) to large (one man-year) efforts at distributing Monero featured wallet hardware. Several requirements (see section 'Non/Functional Requirements') support the derivation, customization, marketing, and teaching of how to begin commercialization. All are welcome to participate in this way, and the hope is that we end up with both collaborating and competing groups.
This project proposal was first discussed by Michael, endogenic, and anonimal at the Monero themed party during DefCon 2017.
Teamwork and collaboration from any competent person is encouraged. Outreach to other hardware makers mutually benefits the respective communities.
The hackerspace mailing lists and IRC channels for C-Base, MuCCC, and the Noisebridge will serve to promote, while dedicated lists and channels will serve to support. Outreach is conducted with the EFF, NLNet, and other like minded groups.
Midterm deliverables will be taken to CCC congress at Leipzig in December, possibly Shmoocon in January, and prototype or release grade devices will be distributed at DefCon 2018 (see project plan.) It may be Michael that makes these visits or another person familiar with the project.